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Health Sciences Research

Three R's

The Three Rs tenet (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement) guides scientists on the ethical use of animals in science:

Replacement refers to methods which avoid or replace the use of animals in an area where animals would otherwise have been used

Reduction refers to any strategy that will result in fewer animals being used

Refinement refers to the modification of husbandry or experimental procedures to minimize pain and distress

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