Government Documents in Stauffer Library has a complete set of manuscript (personal name) census records on microfilm for Canada from 1666 to 1911, the 1906 Census of the Northwest Provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba), and the 1916 Census for the Western Provinces.
Digital images of census records are available via Library and Archives Canada.
Indices to Canadian Censuses
Transcribed index to the 1851, 1901, 1906, and 1911 censuses from the microfilm held at Library and Archives Canada.
A database of census records for "heads" and "strays" only is available for:
Canada - 1666 to 1901
Catalogue of Census Returns on Microfilm 1666-1901
Geographical index to census microfilm numbers
Note: This is not a family name index.
Paper: In two volumes (1666-1891 and 1901). Shelved on the census microfilm cabinets.
Ontario - 1871
1871 Census of Canada (Ontario index)
Searchable database of census records for "heads" (heads of households) and "strays" (people with a different surname living in the household)
Kingston area - various years
Indexes by name of head of household for selected locations in the Kingston area for selected census years.
Paper: Shelved on the census microfilm cabinets
Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba - 1906
Census of the Northwest Provinces, 1906 - database searchable by Province, District Name, District Number, and Sub-district Number but not by family name.
Automated Genealogy site
A volunteer project to produce a name index to the 1901 Census of Canada. In progress.
The Canadian County Atlas Digital Project
This is a searchable database of the property owners' names which appear on the township maps in county atlases for Ontario, the Maritimes, and Quebec. These atlases were produced between the years 1874 and 1881. Township maps, portraits and properties have been scanned, with links from the property owners' names in the database.
The Changing Shape of Ontario: Early Districts and Counties, 1788-1899 (Archives of Ontario)
Maps and tables illustrating the changes in Ontario's boundaries, external and internal.
Immigrants from England, 1800 - 1900
(complied by Russ Waller. Reproduced here with permission)
In census records, you might come across "strays" along with "heads".
Heads of Households are the "head" of the census family -- in most cases the husband or father. Note that in most cases, the "SEX" for males is blank. Where a woman is the head of the household, the "SEX" code is filled in.
"Strays" are members of a given household that are not members of the immediate census family. These include hired hands, servants, and relatives beyond the immediate family.
Government Documents does not lend its manuscript census microfilm (via Inter-Library Loan, or otherwise).
Manuscript census records from 1666 to 1901 for all of Canada as well as the Census of the Northwest Provinces (Alberta, Saskatchewan, Manitoba) for 1906 and the 1916 Census of the Western Provinces are available for public consultation in Government Documents, Stauffer Library.