Peer review is the process by which manuscripts submitted to a journal are critically assessed by experts in a field who are not members of the journal's editorial staff. There are several forms of peer review.
Double-blind peer review: The identifies of the author and reviewers are not disclosed to either party.
Single-blind peer review: The author's identity is disclosed to the reviewers but the reviewers' identities are not disclosed to the author.
Open peer review: The identifies of both the reviewers and the author(s) are disclosed to both parties.
Peer review is also used to evaluate other research-related works such as grant applications and research proposals.