In 1842, the Canadian government established the Geological Survey of Canada (GSC): it has the distinction of being Canada’s first science agency, and it is now part of Natural Resources Canada’s Earth Sciences sector. The mission of the GSC was to map Canada’s geology, with the goal of producing its mineral resources. GSC members were instrumental in the exploration of Canada as well. The information collected by geologists and engineers over the past 174 years has been distributed by publications such as maps, reports, ongoing monograph series (e.g. GSC Memoirs, Papers, Bulletin), books and data. In addition to the federal survey, each province and territory has their own geological survey that produces maps, reports and series.
Why are these publications so valuable? It is in part because geological information does not become outdated; because these publications are so detailed; and because, in general, the information cannot be found elsewhere.