Note: Some authors distinguish misinformation and disinformation, where the former may involve an actor spreading inaccurate information that they believe is true, and the latter involves a conscious attempt to deceive. In practical applications, disinformation is generally treated as a subset of misinformation, as it is more difficult to ascertain the motives of actors transmitting inaccurate information.
Most of this guide content foucses on Disinformation (Fake News) that refers to any form of communication with an intention to mislead for a certain purpose (e.g. to deceive people, or to promote a biased agenda). The information in such a communication is purposefully false or contains a misrepresentation of the truth. Disinformation can be used by individuals, companies, media outlets, and even government agencies.
Types of Disinformation (Quoted from: Ungvarsky, J. (2020). Disinformation. In Salem Press Encyclopedia. Salem Press.)
Simply put, you can use these defiinitions:
Disinformation: Information that is false and deliberately created to harm a person, social group, organization, or country.
Misinformation: Information that is false but not created with the intention of causing harm.
Mal-information: Information that is based in reality and used to inflict harm on a person, social group, organization, or country.
The MIT Center for Advanced Virtuality has created a course that addresses misinformation both in terms of specific contemporary technological phenomena and a broader media perspective: