Canada Sentencing Quantums is a comprehensive source of sentencing summaries from 1997 to the present, organized according to the detailed LexisNexis Classification scheme. Canada Sentencing Quantums contains summaries of court cases from all Canadian jurisdictions. Content is organized according to Criminal Code and non-Criminal Code offences. In addition, cases can be searched according to the sanction imposed, including imprisonment, fines and conditional sentences. Cases can also be accessed according to sentencing considerations, including aggravating and mitigating circumstances, deterrence and time already served. The Canada Sentencing Quantum summaries are further searchable by court level, jurisdiction, and by date. Drop-down menus permit a focused and precise search with regard to the following: Criminal Code offences, non-Criminal Code offences, particular sanctions, and sentencing considerations. Finally, users can search by judge or counsel. This source includes a browse feature that allows users to easily navigate through the headings and subheadings to quickly locate groups of cases of particular interest. Researchers may also perform keyword searches in the summaries. Case citations are hyperlinked to the full-text version of each decision.
Life imprisonment has replaced capital punishment as the most common sentence imposed for heinous crimes worldwide. As a consequence, it has become the leading issue in international criminal justice reform. In the first global survey of prisoners serving life terms, Dirk van Zyl Smit and Catherine Appleton argue for a human rights-based reappraisal of this exceptionally harsh punishment.
This book presents an in-depth comparative study of sentencing practice for rape in six common law jurisdictions- England and Wales, Scotland, Ireland, Canada, New Zealand, and South Africa. It provides a thorough review of the medical literature on the physical and psychological effects of rape, the legal and philosophical literature on the seriousness of the offence, and the victim's role in sentencing. By building on recent scholarship on judicial decision making in sentencing and case law comprising over 250 decisions of the relevant appellate courts the book explores and critically analyses judicial approaches to rape sentencing. The analysis is undertaken with a view to suggesting possible reforms to rape sentencing in 'non-guideline' jurisdictions. In so doing, this book seeks to establish general principles for sentencing rape, assisting in the imposition of proportionate sentences.
Following the Second World War, liberal nation-states sought to address injustices of the past. Canada's government began to consider its own implication in various past wrongs, and in the late twentieth century it began to implement reparative justice initiatives for historically marginalized people. Yet despite this shift, there are more Indigenous and racialized people in Canadian prisons now than at any other time in history. Carmela Murdocca examines this disconnect between the political motivations for amending historical injustices and the vastly disproportionate reality of the penal system - a troubling contradiction that is often ignored.