What are the most important scientific advances in the last couple of centuries? For many of us, the answers that spring to mind are the things that surround us - our computers, televisions, telephones, and lightbulbs. To a scientist, the answers would most likely be different, and mightincludes Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic radiation, the quantum theory and its extension into quantum mechanics, and the theory of relativity. Why should there be such a discrepancy between these two sets of answers? The problem lies in part in the distinction between science and technology, or pure and applied science. In To light such a candle, the renowned chemist and historian of science Keith Laidler examines the discoveries of some gifted individuals over the centuries - some scientists, sometechnologists - and how they have lit candles that have transformed our material lives. Taking seven themes in science and technology, he considers their often complicated inter-relationship. We see how "pure research" (much under threat at present) often leads to practical applications of thegreatest importance. Faraday's pure research on electricity had immense technological implications, while Maxwell's theory of electromagnetic radiation led directly to the discovery of radio transmission, something of which Maxwell himself had no conception. Conversely, the early steam engineswere by no means science-based, but they led directly to the science of thermodynamics, one of the most fundamental branches of pure science. Illuminated by many fascinating stories from the history of science, this book provides a powerful argument for the relevance of pure research, and gives the general reader and scientist alike an idea of the nature and importance of the links between science and technology.
From the story behind Einstein's revolutionary theory of relativity to Oppenheimer's opposition to U.S. construction of the hydrogen bomb, from the prejudice against women that barred Lise Meitner from working in a major laboratory to the false nose worn by Tycho Brahe after his own was cut off in a duel, the lives of the world's great scientists form a fascinating backdrop to their stunning achievements. Now in its second edition, The Biographical Dictionary of Scientists offers in one convenient volume over 1,200 comprehensive and accessible introductions to the visionary men and women of astronomy, chemistry, physics, biology, mathematics, engineering and technology, and geology. In addition to recounting basic biographical information, each entry details the significance of each scientist's landmark contributions while providing intriguing insights into the complicated process--including meditation, observation, experimentation, exploration, debate, and synthesis--that culminated in the theories and discoveries that often define our understanding of the world around us. Throughout, the dictionary stresses how each scientist operated in a unique historical and scientific context, and how their lives and work were affected by their relationships with other scientists as well as by personal, social, political, religious, and artistic concerns. Over 150 illustrations, seven chronological reviews of significant developments in major scientific fields, an extensive glossary with more than 2,000 definitions, complete lists of Nobel prizewinners in science and medicine, and a comprehensive index round out the dictionary. The new edition combines in one convenient volume the material originally published in six separate books, eliminating the need to know exactly which field a particular scientists may have practiced in before looking up their entry. Nearly 100 new entries have been added, expanding the dictionary's multicultural coverage, with an emphasis on the contributions of women The entries on scientists active since the publication of the first edition have been updated, and the unified glossary has been expanded with many new terms. Unrivaled in scope and authority, The Biographical Dictionary of Scientists, Second Edition is a wonderfully engaging reference that introduces all readers--students and scientists alike--to the personalities behind the discoveries that have forever altered our scientific landscape.
The Cambridge Dictionary of Scientists is an invaluable one-stop reference book for anyone wanting a quick but reliable account of the life and work of those whose contributions have changed the course of science throughout history. This alphabetically organized, illustrated biographical dictionary covers over 1300 key scientists from more than 38 countries whose work has helped shape modern science. Fields covered include physics, chemistry, biology, geology, astronomy, mathematics, medicine, meteorology and technology - and special attention is paid to those pioneer women whose achievements and example opened the way to scientific careers for their fellow women. Interspersed with illustrations in the form of diagrams, maps and tables, and with special panel features, this book is a clear and accessible guide to the world's prominent scientific personalities.
Call Number: Q141 .N73 1995 (shelved in South Reading Room, Level 7)
This four-volume set profiles some of the 20th century's most prolific scientists, both living and deceased. Scientists from around the world are featured, including 225 female scientists, nearly 150 Asian-, African-, Hispanic-, and Native North American scientists, as well as nearly 75 scientists from countries outside Western Europe and North America. Outstanding individuals covered include: British chemist Dorothy Crowfoot-Hodgkin; Austrian zoologist Konrad Lorenz; and French AIDS researcher Luc Montagnier. Entries are arranged alphabetically to assist researchers locate specific individuals quickly, and each 750-2500 word essay provides personal and career information, including a list of major writings and resources for further information.
"There is very little reference material on black scientists in the US and even less that includes black women scientists. This book fills a void... " --Choice "... a valuable new survey of a social group almost universally neglected by chroniclers of American culture... [an] admirable book... " --San Francisco Examiner "... an illuminating collection of more than 100 profiles... " --Publishers Weekly This pathbreaking book goes beyond the lip-service traditionally paid to Black women scientists and illuminates their scientific contributions, struggles, strategies, and triumphs. Drawn heavily from primary sources, Warren's original reference guide includes biographies of more than 100 Black women scientists in fields from anatomy and mathematics to psychology and zoology.
Abraham Pais is the author of the definitive biographies of Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr. Indeed, his biography of Einstein was the winner of the 1983 American Book Award and was selected by The New York Times Book Review as one of the Best Books of the Year. As a distinguished theoretical physicist who was a friend and colleague of Einstein and Bohr, Pais is able to blend a sophisticated understanding of physics with a first-hand knowledge of the private individual, offering us insights into both. It is this unique double perspective that makes his work so valuable. Now, in The Genius of Science, Pais offers us insightful portraits of twelve of our century's most distinguished physicists, all of whom he has known personally. We meet, among others, the famously taciturn Paul Dirac; Max Born, who coined the term 'quantum mechanics'; Wolfgang Pauli, famed for his exclusion principle and known as the conscience of twentieth-century physics; Mitchell Feigenbaum, inventor of chaos theory; and John von Neumann, one of the most influential mathematicians of the century. Other scientists profiled include Res Jost, Isidor Rabi, Viktor Weisskopf, and Eugene Wigner. In addition, because their work is so relevant to the others discussed, Pais has included chapters on Einstein and Bohr, in each case giving the essence of the man's character and scientific achievement. Throughout the volume, Pais illuminates the personalities and achievements of these stellar scientists. The result is virtually a who's who of 20th-century physics--a superb collection of portraits that sheds light on the physicists, their work, and their lasting influence on science.
Through a special arrangement with the American Council of Learned Societies, Charles Scribner's Sons has arranged not only to provide the New Dictionary of Scientific Biography in eBook format, but also to digitize the entire back-file of the original Dictionary of Scientific Biography. This comprehensive eBook includes the complete text of the 18-volume original, plus the New Dictionary of Scientific Biography.
Features 25 different scientists and the ideas which may not have made them famous, but made history... Typically, we remember our greatest scientists from one single invention, one new formula or one incredible breakthrough. This narrow perspective does not give justice to the versatility of many scientists who also earned a reputation in other areas of science. James Watt, for instance, is known for inventing the steam engine, yet most people do not know that he also invented the copier. Alexander Graham Bell of course invented the telephone, but only few know that he invented artificial breathing equipment, a prototype of the 'iron lung'. Edmond Halley, whose name is associated with the comet that visits Earth every 75 years, produced the first mortality tables, used for life insurances. This entertaining book is aimed at anyone who enjoys reading about inventions and discoveries by the most creative minds. Detailed illustrations of the forgotten designs and ideas enrich the work throughout.
In Leaps in the Dark, John Waller presents another collection of revelations from the world of science. He considers experiments in which the scientists' awareness was not perhaps as keen as they might have claimed in retrospect; he investigates the jealousy and opposition that scientific ideas can provoke; he celebrates the scientists who were wrong, but for very good reasons; and he demonstrates how national interest can affect scientists and their theories. The result is an entertaining and highly readable re-examination of scientific discoveries and reputations from the Renaissance to the twentieth century. The tales in Leaps in the Dark range across a wide historical field, from a seventeenth-century witch-finder, Joseph Glanvill, to Sir Robert Watson-Watt, the self-proclaimed 'Father of radar'. Each story underscores the rich, fascinating complexity of scientific discovery. Writing in a clear and engaging style, and skilfully weaving history in with the science, John Waller brings these scientists to life, illustrating how their work and their discoveries influenced their careers and the wider world around them.
A wonderfully readable account of scientiﬁc development over the past ﬁve hundred years, focusing on the lives and achievements of individual scientists, by the bestselling author of In Search of Schrödinger's Cat In this ambitious new book, John Gribbin tells the stories of the people who have made science, and of the times in which they lived and worked. He begins with Copernicus, during the Renaissance, when science replaced mysticism as a means of explaining the workings of the world, and he continues through the centuries, creating an unbroken genealogy of not only the greatest but also the more obscure names of Western science, a dot-to-dot line linking amateur to genius, and accidental discovery to brilliant deduction. By focusing on the scientists themselves, Gribbin has written an anecdotal narrative enlivened with stories of personal drama, success and failure. A bestselling science writer with an international reputation, Gribbin is among the few authors who could even attempt a work of this magnitude. Praised as "a sequence of witty, information-packed tales" and "a terriﬁ c read" by The Times upon its recent British publication, The Scientists breathes new life into such venerable icons as Galileo, Isaac Newton, Albert Einstein and Linus Pauling, as well as lesser lights whose stories have been undeservedly neglected. Filled with pioneers, visionaries, eccentrics and madmen, this is the history of science as it has never been told before. From the Hardcover edition.
The Nobel Prize is by far the highest recognition a scientist may receive and the only one with which the general public is familiar. Its prestige has reached improbable heights. At the same time a lot of myth surrounds the Nobel Prize, and this is compounded by the fact that people tend to view scientists with some bewilderment. This book introduces the process of selection of the laureates, discusses the ingredients for scientific discovery and for getting recognition. It reviews the decisive moments of scientific careers en route to the Nobel Prize, points to characteristic features of the laureates, the importance of mentors and venues in scientific careers and other components of success. It also covers some discoverers and discoveries for whom and for which the Nobel Prize never materialized. Whereas there is no general recipe for receiving the Nobel Prize, there are common features of successful scientific careers. The book reveals some information about the scientists' lives and careers that may guide other scientists in increasing their chances of becoming more effective and better recognized players--although it is not expected to help anyone to receive the Nobel Prize! For the general reader The Road to Stockholm reveals the human face of scientists and the human side of their endeavours. The Nobel Prize has served as inspiration for scientists and the general public for a hundred years: this book discusses its problems and celebrates its triumphs.
Engineering transformed the world completely between the 17th and 21st centuries. Remarkable Engineers tells the stories of 51 of the key pioneers in this transformation, from the designers and builders of the world's railways, bridges and aeroplanes, to the founders of the modern electronics and communications revolutions. The focus throughout is on their varied life stories, and engineering and scientific detail is kept to a minimum. Engineer profiles are organized chronologically, inviting readers with an interest in engineering to follow the path by which these remarkable engineers utterly changed our lives.