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HLTH 101

About In-text Citation

In APA style, in-text citations are inserted in the body of a research paper to document the sources of information. All sources that are cited in the text must appear in the reference list, alphabetically by author at the end of the paper.

Basic Rules

In APA style format, in-text citations consist of: last name(s) of the author(s) followed by a comma and the publication year enclosed in parentheses. The author's last name and the year of publication for the source should appear in the text.

Please note:

  • If there is no author: Use the title (or a short form of the title, if it is lengthy) and the year.
  • If there is no date: Use “n.d.” (without quotation marks) instead.
  • If you are quoting directly: Include the page number, if given.
  • If the author's name is not given: Use the first word or words of the title.

For more information, please refer to: OWL, In-text Citations: The Basics

Please Note

There are many types of in-text citations. This guide only lists a few basic in-text citation styles.

If the type of entry you need is not included in the examples listed, please consult one or all of  the following:

In-text Citations

One Author

If you use the author’s name in your text, follow it with the year of the work’s publication. For example:

   Johnston (2016) found that among known social determinants of      health... 

   Statistics have shown that (Johnston, 2016)...

Two or More Authors

For two author's, name both authors each time you cite the work. Use the word "and" between the authors' names within the text. Use an ampersand in the parentheses. For example:

   Research by Johnston and Smith (2016) indicates...

   The efficacy of the University’s study of adolescent health and      well-being has been questioned because of its “statistical    inaccuracies” (Johnston &    Smith, 2016, p. 78).

If a source has three, four, or five authors, you should cite all the names the first time you document the source. For all subsequent references, use only the first author's name and "et al."

For additional examples and more information, please refer to:  OWL Purdue:In-text Citations: Authors.

Direct Quotes

Short Quotations

When quoting directly from a work, include the author, year of publication, and the page number for the reference (preceded by "p."). For example:

   According to Ruger (2010), "There are no guarantees of good    health, but society can, if it will, design and build effective    institutions and social systems..." (p. 99).