The reference list appears at the end of the paper on a page separate from the text of the essay. Each source you cite in the paper must appear in your reference list. The reference list provides the information necessary for a reader to locate and retrieve any source that you cite in your paper.
The basic principle behind all APA Style references is that a reference should contain:
These four elements must always appear in the same order: Author, A. (Year of Publication). Title. Source.
When formatting your reference list, follow these standards:
For more information, please refer to: Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL), Reference List: Basic Rules or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association.
A DOI (digital object identifier) is a permanent digital identifier given to an object. It is most commonly used to identify electronic documents and acts as a permanent address for finding information online because online material can potentially change URLs.
The DOI replaces the need to cite the URL and the date that the information was retrieved. The only exception to this rule is for content that changes over time, such as wikis, discussion boards, or even commercial Web sites.
Basic Format for Books
Author, A. (Year of publication). Title of work. Location: Publisher.
Davidson, A. (2015). Social determinants of health: A comparative approach. Don Mills, ON: Oxford University Press.
Basic Format for Articles with no DOI
Author, A. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. Retrieved from http://www.address.com/full/url/
Coburn, D., Denny, K., Mykhalovskiy, E., McDonough, P., Robertson, A., & Love, R. (2003). Population Health in Canada: A Brief Critique. American Journal Of Public Health, 93(3), 392- 396. Retrieved from: http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?
Basic Format for Articles with DOI assigned
Author, A. A., Author, B. B., & Author, C. C. (Date of publication). Title of article. Title of Journal, volume number, page range. http://dx.doi.org/xxxxx or doi:0000000/0000000
Raphael, D. (2012). Educating the canadian public about the social determinants of health: The time for local public health action is now. Global Health Promotion, 19(3), 54- 59. doi:10.1177/1757975912453847
For additional exampes and more information, please refer to: Purdue Online Writing Lab (OWL), Reference List: Electronic Sources (Web Publications) or the APA Style Guide to Electronic References.