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Indigenous Knowledges and Perspectives

Quick List of Resources for Writing

Toronto Metropolitan University Library has produced a Four Directions Writing Guide for Indigenous students looking for guidance as to how to write a university-level paper in a way that honours their Indigeneity.


Developing a thesis statement:

Developing an outline:

Organizing your paper:

Citing your sources
When writing your paper it is likely you will use quotes and/or ideas and opinions from scholars and other authors.  It is essential that you give recognition to the work of others.  Knowing how to cite another person's work properly helps you to:

  • give credit and acknowledge their ideas
  • avoid plagiarism
  • direct readers to the sources on which your research is based

Your instructor may indicate which style guide you are required to use in a specific course.  If not, you can choose a style guide.  Just remember to use the same style throughout your paper and be consistent.  Two styles that are commonly used in the social sciences are ASA Style and Chicago Style.  For a list of styles, and links to how to use them see the library's Citation Style Guide.


Featured Title

Decolonizing Citations

Decolonizing Citations is a video presented by Bronwen McKie for the Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology, University of British Columbia

Are citation practices fair to Indigenous scholars? Who scholars cite, how scholars cite, and what sources are considered authoritative to cite can validate and legitimize knowledge or oppress knowledge. Frequently, Indigenous ways of knowing (oral teachings and histories in particular) are delegitimized in academia by citational politics. In this session, learn more about “citational politics,” the existing templates for citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers, and about the current initiatives at X̱wi7x̱wa to further legitimize citing Indigenous Elders and Knowledge Keepers in academia.