A standard is a "document that provides requirements, specifications, guidelines or characteristics that can be used consistently to ensure that materials, products, processes and services are fit for their purpose." (ISO, 2013) A code is a collection of standards; for example, the Canadian National Building Code. Standards and codes that are incorporated into law are often referred to as regulations.
Organizations that develop standards are called standards developing organizations (SDOs) or standards setting organizations (SSOs). This includes organizations, committees, companies, governmental agencies and other groups. There are hundreds of thousands of standards and codes in force worldwide.
Standards apply to everything from Christmas trees to nuclear power stations and children's toys to medical scanners. Standards are why a smartphone made in South Korea will work on a North American cell phone network.
Standards are often identified and cited by their number, which is typically composed of three elements:
For example, in "ABC 123.45 2010",
Some SDOs also include a number or letter indicating the subject area of the standard.
For example, in "XYZ D123-2008",
The format for citing a standard will vary depending on the style guide or journal guidelines. Below are a few examples.
Canadian Standards Association. (2015). Oil and gas pipeline systems. CAN/CSA-Z662-15 (Revised 2016). Toronto, ON: CSA Group. Retrieved from CSA Online Subscription Service.
Oil and gas pipeline systems, CAN/CSA-Z662-15 (Revised 2016). 2015. Retrieved from CSA Online Subscription Service.