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Engineering Design and Practice Sequence (EDPS)

Information Resources and Management for Engineering Design and Practice Sequence (EDPS)

Citing References

 1.  Why Cite?

  • Establishes the validity of your project
  • Gives credit
  • Helps others doing similar research

2. What to Cite

Everything you incorporate into your project unless it is your own original idea.

  • All quotations
  • Information from websites, graphics, newspapers, magazines, books, code, interviews ...
  • Someone else's ideas even when you restate it in your own words

3. How to Cite

  • There are many different ways to correctly cite your references. Some courses such as APSC100 use IEEE style. See library guide on how to cite in IEEE format (from Murdoch University Library). 
  • Please check with your TA or project manager if there is a preferred style to use for your assignments.
  • Zotero is a software that builds your bibliography for you in the style of your choice.

IEEE citation style of different sources


Book with a single author:

J. R. Berryhill, C++ Scientific Programming: Computational Recipes at a Higher Level. New York: Wiley, 2001, pp. 245.

Book with multiple authors:

E. F. De Millano, E. F. Gloyna, and S.V. Antonin, Sodium Thiosulfate's Fate in Activated Sludge, vol. CRWR-185. Austin: Center for Research in Water Resources, Bureau of Engineering Research, University of Texas at Austin, 1981, pp. 90.

Book with a corporate author:

Levelton Engineering and Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, National Framework for Petroleum Refinery Emission Reductions. Winnipeg: Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment, 2005, pp. 66.

Book with no author given:

Mine and Mill Equipment Costs: An Estimator's Guide. Spokane, Wash.: Western Mine Engineering Inc., 1997, pp. 207.

Section of a book:

B.K. Kandola, "Nanocomposites," in Fire Retardant Materials, A.R. Horrocks and D. Price, Ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2001. pp. 204-219.

Journal Articles

Journal article:

X.I. Koutiva, T. D. Vrionis, N.A. Vovos, and G.B. Giannakopoulos, "Optimal integration of an offshore wind farm to a weak AC grid,"IEEE Transactions on Power Delivery , vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 987-994, 2006.

Journal article (electronic only, no print version):

N. Ramakrishna, (2003). Production system planning for natural resource conservation in a micro watershed. Electronic Green Journal. [Online]. 18. Available:

Technical Reports

K. Chen, C.C. Federspiel, D.M. Auslander, C.E. Bash, and C.D. Patel, "Control Strategies for Plenum Optimization in Raised Floor Data Centers," HP Labs, Paolo Alto, CA, Tech. Rep. HPL-2006-47, Mar. 2006.


Article in conference proceedings:

H.J. De Los Santos, "On the ultimate limits of IC inductors: An RF MEMS perspective," in Proc. IEEE Electron. Comp. Tech. Conf., 2002, pp. 1027?1031.

Standards and patents

Z. Zhou, "Integrated optical multiplexer and demultiplexer for wavelength division transmission of information," Canadian Patent 2554095, Aug. 11, 2005.


Joint Committee on Space Astronomy. (2006, April). JCSA Meeting Summary. Canadian Space Agency. [Online]. 2006(09/19) Available:

Personal Communications

Personal communications include conversations, letters, interviews, e-mails and telephone conversations.  IEEE style states that you always cite only published works, forthcoming published works, and unpublished materials available to scholars in a library, a depository, or an archive.

For interviews or other "non-recoverable" information, no citation number is necessary. This does not mean that an attempt to identify the author is unnecessary, but that it needs to be done in the text itself. Also, do not refer to professional titles such as “Dr.” or “PhD” or even titles like U.S. Surgeon General, but do include personal titles such as “Jr.” or “III” after the surname. Such as : "In a personal interview with Bill Gates, he suggested that he would soon rule the world."

But for the annotated bibliography assignment, you can use the following format:
[7] John Smith. Chief Executive Officer, Alberta Research Council. Interview. Calgary, AB. October 15, 2009.
[7] John Smith. Chief Executive Officer, Alberta Research Council. Email. Calgary, AB. October 15, 2009.
[7] John Smith. Chief Executive Officer, Alberta Research Council. Telephone conversation. Calgary, AB. October 15, 2009.