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French Studies


Unless otherwise noted, the following dictionaries are electronic.

French language dictionaries

  • Le Petit Robert 
    French dictionary that includes detailed definitions with examples, expressions, synonyms, antonyms, etymologies, literary citations, and more.

  • Grand dictionnaire terminologique (GDT)
    Maintained by the Office québécois de la langue française, this dictionary provides terms used in specific fields of study and professions in French, English, and sometimes other languages.

  • Usito 
    This free electronic dictionary describes standard French in use in North America. Developed by the Université de Sherbrooke. 

  • Dictionnaire de l'Académie française 
    Important monolingual French dictionary which has been published by the Académie Française since 1694. Includes the most recent 9th edition.

  • Larousse Dictionaries

    French dictionary with definitions, expressions, citations, pronunciations, and more.

  • Dictionnaire Vivant de la Langue Française (DVLF)

Bilingual dictionaries

Historical dictionaries

Specialized dictionaries

The following are select specialized and focused dictionarie


General encyclopedias 

Encyclopaedia Universalis
A comprehensive French-language encyclopedia with a scholarly focus.

Encyclopédie Larousse en ligne 
General encyclopedia with articles on various subjects, including region, culture, language, historical events. 

Encyclopédie canadienne
Covers Canadian subject

Specialized encyclopedias

Specialized encyclopedias relevant to French Studies

Encyclopedia of Contemporary French Culture (1998) (Online)
More than 700 alphabetically organized entries by an international team of contributors provide a fascinating survey of French culture post 1945.

The Feminist Encyclopedia of French Literature (1999) (Print)